Latest Updated Class 9 Biology All Chapters Notes KPK Curriculum
9 Biology Notes KPK Latest Updated Free PDF Notes KPK Syllabus
“ Gaining knowledge ,is the first step to wisdom,Sharing it ,is the first step to Huminity”
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY
- Define biology its major divisions i.e. botany, zoology and microbiology.
- Define the branches of biology i.e. morphology, anatomy, physiology, embryology, taxonomy, cell biology, histology, palaeontology, environmental biology, biotechnology, socio-biology, parasitology, immunology, entomology, genetics, pharmacology.
- Link the study of biology with that of physics, chemistry, mathematics, geography and economics.
- Explain how the study of biology can lead to Medicine / Surgery, Fisheries, Agriculture, Animal husbandry, Biotechnology, Horticulture, Farming, Forestry.
- Identify that living organisms are divided in five groups i.e. prokaryotes, protists, fungi, plants and animals.
- Relate at least three verses from Holy Quran, instructing for the study of the origin and the characteristics of life, with the modern scientific achievements
- Relate the contributions of Jaber Bin Hayan, Abdul Malik Asmai and Bu Ali Sina with the current knowledge about plants and animals
Chapter 2: SOLVING A BIOLOGICAL PROBLEM
- Describe the steps involved in biological method i.e. recognition of a biological problem, observation and identification, building up hypotheses, drawing deductions, devising experiments and inferring results (malaria as an example).
- Describe the use of ratio and proportion in solving biological problems.
- Explain the importance of data analysis for confirming, modifying, or rejecting a hypothesis.
- Justify mathematics as an integral part of the scientific process.
Chapter 03 BIODIVERSITY
- Define biodiversity.
- Describe the major variety of life on the planet earth.
- Relate the importance of biodiversity with the natural ecosystem through examples.
- Describe the bases of classification of living organisms.
- Explain the aims and principles of classification, keeping in view its historical background.
- Identify the contributions of Aristotle as the founder of biological classification.
- Describe the distinguishing taxonomic characters of fresh and preserved specimens kept in laboratory.
- Explain the bases for establishing 5 kingdoms.
- Compare Two-kingdom and Five-kingdom classification systems.
- Rationalise that Five-kingdom classification system better explains diversity of living organisms.
- Describe the contributions of Abu Usman Umar Al Jahiz in describing the
- characteristics of animal species.
Chapter 04 CELLS AND TISSUES
- Explain the concepts of light microscopy and electron microscopy.
- Explain the relationship between developments in imaging technology and the current understanding of the cell.
- Identify the structure and describe, in general terms, the functions of the components of plant and animal cell.
- Justify how the cells of the leaf system have a variety of specialised structures and functions.
- Define tissue as the group of similar cells, performing the same function.
- Describe the major animal tissues (epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous) in terms of their cell specificities, locations and functions.
- Describe the major plant tissues i.e. simple tissues (meristematic tissues, permanent tissues) and compound tissues (xylem tissues and phloem tissues) in terms of their cell specificities, locations and functions.
Chapter 05 CELLS CYCLE
- Define Cell Cycle and describe its main phases i.e. Interphase and Division
- Describe the sub-phases of the Interphase of Cell Cycle.
- Predict the importance of S-phase of the Interphase.
- Describe the two types of Cell Division in Eukaryotic cells i.e. Mitosis and Meiosis.
- Enlist the events through which Mitotic Apparatus is formed in prophase in animal and plant cells.
- Describe the formation of metaphase plate and the division of centromere, during metaphase.
Chapter 06 ENZYMES
- Define metabolism and differentiate between catabolism and anabolism.
- Describe enzymes as the proteins that speed up biochemical reactions.
- Categorise enzymes as intra and extracellular.
- Comprehend that enzymes increase rate of reaction.
- State that small quantity of enzyme is effective for large amount of substrate.
- Infer that enzymes are specific for specific substrates.
- State that some enzymes require cofactor for their functioning.
- Describe the concept of energy of activation and how it is lowered by enzyme.
- Explain the effect of pH, temperature and concentration of substrate on the activity of an enzyme
Chapter 07 BIOENERGETICS
- Define Bioenergetics as the study of energy relationships and energy conversions in living organisms.
- Describe the importance of Oxidation-Reduction reactions for the flow of energy through living systems.
- Explain ATP as a molecule that is the chief energy currency of all cells.
- Describe the synthesis and breaking of ATP through ATP-ADP cycle
- State that photosynthesis is the fundamental process by which plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials.
- State the equation (in words or symbols) for photosynthesis.
- Describe anaerobic respiration by means of word and symbol equation.
- Describe the importance of Anaerobic Respiration
Chapter 08 NUTRITION
- Define mineral nutrition in plants.
- Categorise minerals nutrients into macronutrients and micronutrients.
- State that nitrogen is important in protein synthesis and magnesium for chlorophyll formation.
- State the effect of lack of nitrate and magnesium ions on plant growth.
- Describe the importance of fertilisers (manure and chemical) in agriculture.
- Discuss environmental hazards related to chemical fertilisers’ use.
- Distinguish among carbohydrates, proteins and fats in terms of their sources, energy values and metabolic functions.
- Specify the food sources and metabolic functions of Vitamins A, C and D.
- Describe the concept and need for a balanced diet.
- Explain the components of a balanced diet with relation to age, sex and activity.
Chapter 09 TRANSPORT
- Conceptualize transport and its needs.
- Explain the internal structure of root and root hair.
- Describe how roots take up water and mineral salts by active and passive absorption.
- Define transpiration and relate this process with cell surface.
- Relate transpiration with stomatal opening and closing.
- Describe temperature, wind and humidity as the factors affecting the rate of transpiration.
- Describe the significance of transpiration.
- Describe transpiration as a necessary evil.
- Relate wilting with excessive transpiration.
- Describe the pathway of water and food in stem.
- Explain the movement of water in terms of transpirational pull.
- Explain the mechanism of food translocation by the theory of Pressure Flow Mechanism.
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