Class 10 Chemistry Chemical Industries Notes Punjab Curriculum

Chemical Industries MCQ`s ,Short Questions and Long Questions Free PDF Download Punjab Curriculum

Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemical Industries Complete Notes MCQ`s, Short Questions and Long Questions

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Chapter 16 Chemical Industries Notes Key Points

  • Metallurgy is technique by which metals are extracted from their ores.
  • Concentration is a separating technique in which mineral is separated from gangue.
  • Sodium carbonate is manufactured by Solvay’s process. The raw materials used in this process are sodium chloride, carbon dioxide and ammonia.
  • Ammonical brine is prepared by dissolving ammonia gas in sodium chloride
  • solution. When this solution is carbonated; first NH4HCO3 forms, which reacts with NaCI to form NaHCO3.
  • NaHCO3 on heating produces Na2CO
  • Urea is manufactured from ammonia and carbon dioxide. First Ammonia and
  • carbon dioxide react to form ammonium carbamate. On evaporation, it dehydrates to form urea.
  • Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons. It forms by the decomposition of dead animals and plants buried under the Earth’s crust.
  • Crude oil is pumped out and then refined in the refineries. Refining is carried out by fractionaldistillation on heating crude oil at 400°C.
  • The important fractions of petroleum are; petroleum gas, petroleum ether, petrol, kerosene oil, diesel and fuel oil.
  • The residual oil is heated above 400°C to produce lubricants, paraffin wax, asphalt and petroleum coke.

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