Class 10 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Notes Punjab Curriculum
Organic Chemistry MCQ`s ,Short Questions and Long Questions Free PDF Download Punjab Curriculum
Chemistry Chapter 11 : Organic Chemistry Complete Notes MCQ`s, Short Questions and Long Questions
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Key Points of Chapter 11 : Organic Chemistry
- Organic compounds are compounds of carbon and hydrogen and their derivatives.
- Compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. They are alkanes, alkenes and alkynes.
- Organic compounds are molecular compounds having covalent bonding.
- They form homologous series of compounds, thus their properties resemble within a series.
- Sources of organic compounds are animals, plants, coal, petroleum and natural gas.
- Dead plants buried under Earth’s crust are converted into coal; petroleum and gas. Coal is blackish solid material.
- Coal is of four types, i.e peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite.
- Destructive distillation of coal produces; coal gas, ammonical liquor; coal tar and coke.
- Petroleum is a dark brownish or greenish black coloured viscous liquid consisting of several compounds. These compounds are separated by fractional distillation.
- Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular mass hydrocarbons. It is mainly used as fuel.
- Living plants synthesize macro-molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins).
- Organic compounds can also be synthesized in laboratories ranging from the simplest compounds to complex ones.
- Organic compounds have wide range of uses. They are used as food, clothing, housing fuel, medicines and to prepare a variety of materials.
- Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, alkyl radicals are derivatives of alkanes which are represented by ‘R’.
- An atom or a group of atoms that provide characteristic properties to an organic compound is called functional group.
- Depending upon the functional groups, organic compounds are classified as alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amines and alkyl halides.
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