Class 10 Chemistry Hydrocarbons Notes Punjab Curriculum

Hydrocarbons MCQ`s ,Short Questions and Long Questions Free PDF Download Punjab Curriculum

Chemistry Chapter 12 : Hydrocarbons Notes Punjab Syllabus inlcudes MCQ`s, Short Questions and Long Questions

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Key Points of Hydrocarbons:

  • Hydrocarbons are organic compounds of carbon and hydrogen elements. They are alkanes, alkenes and alkynes.
  • Open chain hydrocarbons are classified as saturated and unsaturated.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons consist of each carbon atom having its tetravalency fully satisfied by single bonds. They are called alkanes and have general formula CnH2n+2.
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons consist of double and triple bonds. Compounds consisting of double bonds are called alkenes. They have general formula CnH2n. While compounds consisting of triple bond are called alkynes. They have general formula CnH2n-2.
  • Alkanes are named with respect to number of carbon atoms ending with a suffix ‘ane’.
  • Alkanes are prepared by hydrogenation of alkenes or alkynes and reduction of alkyl halides.
  • The important reactions of alkanes are combustion and halogenation. Combustion of alkanes produce a lot of energy that is the reason alkanes are used as fuel.
  • Alkenes are prepared by dehydration of alcohols and dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides.
  • Alkenes give important reactions like halogenation and oxidation. Oxidation of alkene produces important compound, glycol.
  • Alkynes are prepared by the dehydrohalogenation of vicinal dihalides and dehalogenation of tetrahalides.
  • Important reaction of acetylene is oxidation that produces oxalic acid.

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